Nearsightedness, often known as myopia, affects a large percentage of the population. The prevalence rate is about 50% or one in two people. Myopia is caused by a cornea (the clear window in front of the eye) that curves too sharply or by an eyeball that is too long. It causes distant objects to appear hazy. Glasses, contact lenses, and even surgery are options for treating myopia. Myopia makes it more likely that you will get cataracts, glaucoma, or a retinal tear in the future.
The term “myopia control” describes the measures taken by medical professionals and parents to mitigate the effects of nearsightedness in children. Slowing myopia progression accomplishes much more than protecting a child’s nearsightedness from worsening. Taking preventive steps now, like controlling myopia, can make it much less likely to get a severe eye disease later in life.
Optometrists often recommend one of five significant types of myopia corrections for their patients.
Some studies have shown that particular contact and glasses lenses can prevent myopia from worsening. Randomised, controlled, peer-reviewed studies show the benefit of using Ortho-K lenses, distance-centre bifocal contact lenses, or bifocal spectacles in reducing or stopping the advancement of myopia. Your chosen myopia control specialist will examine your child’s prescription and lifestyle to determine the best course of action. They will monitor your child’s progress over time to ensure that myopia doesn’t “creep.”
During orthokeratology, called CRT or ortho-K, sleep-wearable medical devices resembling contact lenses are put on the eyes to correct vision. Overnight, gentle pressure is put on the cornea or surface of the eye to “mould” it, giving the wearer “lens-like” effects. Users may see well all day without the need for corrective eyeglasses. The results are excellent, and they eliminate the need for glasses or regular contact lenses when playing sports, swimming, or doing other things where vision correction is needed. In many situations, myopia progression can be slowed or even stopped entirely using orthokeratology, as shown in several randomised, controlled trials and longitudinal investigations.
Centre-distance multifocal contact lenses
The geographical focus at a great distance when it comes to care and use, multifocal soft contact lenses are no different from your standard disposable lenses. Several studies have shown that a central optical “trick” in lenses can slow down how quickly myopia gets worse. This strategy is becoming increasingly common. There are only two manufacturers of such lenses as of this writing. You should consult your doctor before deciding on the brand to purchase.
Many studies have shown that eye drops or ointments with atropine can slow the progress of myopia. Atropine treatment, consisting of one eye drop once a day, is usually kept up for as long as myopia worsens. It’s not a miracle cure, but it has helped many people keep their myopia under control, and it can be used with bifocal glasses for even better results. Despite its efficacy, the atropine analogue pirenzepine is not commercially available. Dopamine is another chemical that has been investigated, but its application has so far proven impractical that it is rarely put into practice.
Bifocal and Multifocal Glasses
In some cases of esophoria, abnormal placement of the eye muscles and wearing glasses with a different prescription for far and near can improve vision. The lenses of bifocal or progressive eyeglasses are designed to do this. Some research has found that bifocals with the dividing line at the lower edge of the pupil are more effective; hence this design is often used. Some studies have shown that this method works well for kids with esophoria whose parents don’t want them to wear contacts or use eye drops.
Learn about bifocals and progressive lenses for correcting myopia with these easy-to-understand explanations of the science behind them.